has a population just less than 30 million people
in a country twice the area of the United States.
The heritage of Canada was French and English;
however, significant immigration from Asia and
Europe's non-French and English countries has broadened
Canada's cultural richness. This cultural diversity
is considered a national asset, and the Constitution
Act prohibits discrimination against individual
citizens on the basis of race, color, religion,
or sex. The great majority of Canadians are Christian.
Although the predominant language in Canada is
English, there are at least three varieties of
French that are recognized: Quebecois in Quebec,
Franco-Manitoban throughout Manitoba and particularly
in the St. Boniface area of Winnipeg, and Acadian.
The Italian language is a strong third due to a
great influx of Italian immigrants following W.W.II.
three major cities are distinctively, even fiercely
different from one another even though each is
a commercially thriving metropolitan center. Montreal,
established in the 17th century and the largest
French city outside France, has a strong influence
of French architecture and culture. It is a financial
and manufacturing center and seaport, with the
majority of Canada's European exports and imports
coming through its harbor. Toronto, another major
financial and commercial center, is filled with
office towers not historic buildings. It has a
great number of people living in and around the
central business district. The downtown district
does not "close up" when people leave
work. Vancouver, nestled at the base of the Coast
Mountains, is the financial, commercial, agricultural,
and industrial center for western Canada. It's
harbor and mountains make it one of Canada's most
picturesque. Consequently, West Vancouver is the
most densely populated urban area and has the highest
income per person of any municipality.
western frontier was "opened" in 1885 when
the Canadian transcontinental railroad completed
its peaceful construction process. The railroad offered cheap
land so immigrants moved in communities establishing
towns with citizens from the same European country.
These settlements, along with the Inuit communities,
give Canada cultural diversity across its nation,
not just in major metropolitan cities. Keep in mind
that Quebec, because it is a French province, has
a very different value system from the rest of Canada,
with its predominately English influence.
Hofstede Analysis for Canada
The majority of Canadians, as well
as citizens of other English speaking countries,
(see Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand,
and the United States) have individualism ranked highest.
Success is measure by personal achievement. Canadians
tend to be self-confident and open to discussions
on general topics;
however, they hold their personal privacy off limits
to all but the closest friends. It should be noted
there is tension
between the French province of Quebec and other Canadian
provinces. Citizens of Quebec tend to be more private
and reserved. Ethnocentrism is high throughout
Canada, but particularly
has Individualism (IDV) as the highest ranking
(80) Hofstede Dimension, and is indicative
of a society with a more individualistic attitude
and relatively loose bonds with others. The populace
is more self-reliant and looks out for themselves
and their close family members. Privacy is considered
the cultural norm and attempts at personal ingratiating
may meet with rebuff.
The majority of Canadians, as well as citizens of
other English speaking countries, (see United Kingdom,
Australia, New Zealand, and the United States) have
Individualism as their highest ranking Dimension.
Among high IDV countries, success is measured by personal
achievement. Canadians tend to be self-confident and
open to discussions on general topics; however, they
hold their personal privacy off limits to all but the
closest friends .
Canadian's lowest ranking Dimension is Long Term Orientation
at 23, compared to the average of 45 among the 23 countries
surveyed for which scores have been calculated. This
low LTO ranking is indicative of societies' belief
in meeting its obligations and tends to reflect an
appreciation for cultural traditions.
Canada's Power Distance (PDI) is relatively low, with
an index of 39, compared to a world average of 55.
This is indicative of a greater equality between societal
levels, including government, organizations, and even
within families. This orientation reinforces a cooperative
interaction across power levels and creates a more
stable cultural environment.
It should be noted there is tension between the French
province of Quebec and other Canadian provinces. Citizens
of Quebec tend to be more private and reserved. Ethnocentrism
is high throughout Canada, but particularly in Quebec.
This may be in part due to the difference in religious
background of the French population, predominately
Catholic, and the English population, predominantly
predominant religions in Canada are Catholic 42%
and Christian 40%, but the population is somewhat
with a high percentage of French Catholic's in Quebec.
Note that the predominant religion in France is Catholic
(83%) and in the United Kingdom is Christian (70%).
More Details on Geert Hofstede
Written by Stephen Taylor - the Sigma Two Group
WORLD FACTBOOK 2011
that we have defined a predominantly Christian
country as over 50% of the population practicing
some form of Christianity, other than Catholicism.
In this group, the primary correlation between
religion and the Geert Hofstede Dimensions is a
high Individualism (IDV) ranking. (See the accompanying article).
for a very cold climate, especially during their
should wear a dark conservative business suit with
tie, especially in cities. Build a wardrobe based
on classic lines (selecting suits with a traditional
lapel width, and ties staying within a traditional
width range). Conservative colors of navy and gray,
and shirts in white and light blue.
should wear a conservative business suit or dress,
especially in cities. Select your clothing with
classic lines and colors in mind. Navy, gray, ivory,
and white are the basics to work with. The major
cities can be very sophisticated.
or trendy clothing is a poor choice. Older, classic
clothing that is clean and neat is more valued.
Choosing quality, natural fibers for your wardrobe
will give you this look. Quality leather shoes
are important to completing this look.
areas are less formal, but stay conservative in
your wardrobe. Even with cold winter weather you
may find yourself in a skirt or dress. Add a good
quality long coat with minimal and classic detail
to your wardrobe. In addition to navy and gray,
a classic camel coat, or a lined Burberry may be
a good addition. This will work for a sophisticated
city meeting, or a more casual rural meeting.
attire is appropriate when you are not working.
The weather and activity will dictate what you
will be wearing. Build a casual wardrobe using
the classic colors (camel is additional color for
casual). You will look professional, even though
for Victory" sign is an insult if your palm
is facing yourself. If you must use this sign,
face your palm outward.
punctual for meetings and appointments, as promptness
is valued. In French areas, time is more relaxed.
However, you will be expected to arrive at the
appointed time, even if the French attending the
maintain a reserved demeanor, and follow good rules
of etiquette. Traditions and gracious manners are
part of the culture, even in more rural areas.
If you travel to different cities or areas, pay
attention to local customs. By being observant,
you will respect the pace and nuances of each area.
not eat while walking in public. Plan your time
so you can stop in a café or restaurant to enjoy
are not routinely given. If you do give a gift
when you arrive or when you are leaving, make it
a modest one. A lavish gift, though accepted, would
be frowned upon.
Gifts are given
to celebrate finalizing a negotiation, a contract,
or a project. Gifts for the office, a nice bottle
of wine or liquor would be appropriate. Considering
a gift for someone in Canada, see
gifts to Canada.
a business associate to a nice meal or an evening
sporting event, play, or symphony is always a nice
to private homes are rare. Occasionally, in the
western provinces, you may be invited to someone's
home. If you are invited, you may take candy, flowers,
or liquor to the host or hostess.
for your host to start a business conversation
during or following a meal. Traditionally, business
is not discussed during dinner; however, this is
space and body movement or gestures differ between
the English and the French provinces and cities.
In English areas, body movement is minimal, there
is rarely touching other than handshakes, and personal
space - how close someone stands - is about two
feet. In French areas, people stand closer together,
people will frequently touch, and gestures are
a firm handshake with good eye contact when meeting
and leaving. Both French and English areas use
and expect a firm handshake.
will wait for a woman to extend her hand for a
Canadians will shake hands more frequently, even
with a subsequent encounter the same day. Others
may just nod or smile at a subsequent encounter
on the same day.
a person's title if he or she has one. Otherwise,
use Mr., Mrs., Miss and the surname.
is spoken in most of Canada. French is spoken in
Quebec, and some area of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Canadians may use their first name when talking
to you on the telephone, but will generally use
their full name when meeting you in person.
open and friendly in your conversation. If you
are naturally reserved in your behavior, you will
appear confident and credible. If your natural
tendency is large sweeping arm gestures, restrain
yourself when meeting and talking with Canadians
- other than with French Canadians.
Canadians stand closer and are more demonstrative
French Canadians, print all material in French
be boastful, and don't overstate your product or
service's capabilities. You could implicate your
company in a legal situation.
you are from the U. S., don't say, "we Americans",
inferring you are including your Canadian hosts
or guests in your reference. Canada is a distinct
country with its own wonderful history and culture.
Geert Hofstede Free
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Page authored by: Kimberley Roberts & Stephen Taylor